Key points for safety production of the hottest sy

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Key points for safety production of synthetic ammonia brief description of process natural gas (the important component is methane) is mixed with steam after desulfurization. It is first put into the primary shift furnace. Under the influence of pressure of 3.6mpa, temperature of 834 ℃ and nickel catalyst, most of methane is changed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. However, we think it is a good time for us to introduce atmosphere into the second stage shift furnace for continuous combustion, and provide nitrogen, an important component of ammonia synthesis. The carbon monoxide in the variable gas reacts with steam to generate hydrogen and carbon dioxide at 426 ℃, 224 ℃ and under the influence of iron and copper catalysts in the high and low change furnaces. The carbon dioxide in the change gas is absorbed by Benfield Solution in the decarbonization tower, and the carbon dioxide in the solution is repeatedly released as a by-product. Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the decarburized gas react with hydrogen to generate methane and water vapor at 354 ℃ under the influence of nickel catalyst. Finally, the mixed gas of nitrogen and hydrogen is compressed to 24MPa by the synthetic gas compressor and sent to the synthesis tower. Under the influence of 540 ℃ and iron catalyst, the nitrogen and hydrogen undergo synthetic reaction. The outlet gas is cooled to condense and separate ammonia, which is the product of synthetic ammonia

the materials (natural gas, naphtha, residual oil), central materials (methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide) and products (ammonia) used for synthetic ammonia production are flammable, explosive, toxic and harmful substances

2 key parts

2.1 variable reaction furnace this furnace is the key equipment for the production of synthetic ammonia. It reacts the material with water vapor and atmosphere to generate hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and provides synthetic reaction. It is said that its energy density exceeds that of nitrogen, one of the important components of all current ternary systems

in the process of variable reaction, if the water carbon ratio is too low, it will turn into carbon deposition in the reaction tube and part of the furnace tube will be burned out at excessive temperature. As a result, a section of furnace tube was broken and the furnace wall burned out. For the two-stage variable temperature furnace, the nozzle flow rate is too small or the incineration is not good during the introduction of atmosphere, which will burn out the nozzle and cause explosion. In addition, the bumps of materials and fuels during the labor process will also make changes responsive to changes. Because the reaction temperature is high, once the edge fails or there are other mistakes, there may be accidents such as overtemperature sintering catalyst of the reaction furnace

2.2 synthetic gas compressor this machine is one of the key dynamic equipment of synthetic ammonia equipment. Qualified nitrogen and hydrogen in the production are boosted to 24MPa by the machine and sent to the ammonia synthesis tower

the setting equipment is high speed (10479min-1). High power (20973kw) centrifugal compressor, powered by high pressure (10.5mpa) and superheated (482 ℃) steam. Once the governor fails or operates improperly, the unit will surge or exceed the speed limit, and the unit will be damaged by using ordinary belt to drive the speed. In addition, once the huge help oil system is bumpy, it will also turn into interlocking shutdown, Bush burning and even unit damage. The thrust pads of the high-pressure cylinder of a compressor have been burned out for many times. Leakage of materials and lubricating oil from the machine may cause fire, explosion and other accidents

2.3 ammonia synthesis tower the reaction tower is one of the key equipment of synthetic ammonia equipment. Qualified nitrogen and hydrogen react with natural ammonia in the synthesis tower

the synthesis reaction is carried out under high pressure (24MPa) and high temperature (540 ℃), which may cause overpressure and overtemperature of the reaction tower due to the imbalance of nitrogen and hydrogen ratio control and untimely regulation, and affect the normal production or turn into catalyst aging. In addition, if the reverberating materials leak, it will lead to explosion, fire and staff poisoning due to excessive combustible gas and toxic substances at the production site

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